SCALDINGI and the real origins of the first wikings!
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Here the readers will find additions that have been found and if necessary, corrections. The people who bought a paperback can see the color photographs that are important to understand the text.
1. Wikings in the chronology of the first millennium
2. Scaldingi book: photos and further explanation
1. Wikings in the chronology of the first millennium
I have tried to describe the facts as neutrally as possible. That is why I have decided to replace the word 'attack' with 'conflict', if those attacks were descriptions from the christian side. I have processed the conflicts with the Frisians, Saxons, Northmen, Germans and Franks in the same chronology, which - I hope - creates a better overview about the course of events. It also shows that the differences between the peoples in this area were minimal and that it is normal for the people to continue using these names for each other. It is striking that especially the Frisians and the Saxons can be considered as forerunners of the wikings. Danes and wikings represent the same kind of people.
In the last centuries of the wiking era the Danes settled in the north and that region became also important. Some data differ according to the sources. I have chosen those dates that occurred most in multiple sources. Regarding the years, I found many times the same information in different places. That is why I sometimes only list the sources without a precise page indication.326 Striking things have a separate endnote.
-390 or -387: Gauls under the leadership of Brennus brought the Romans a heavy defeat at the Allia, a tributary of the Tiber. Sacking of Rome.
-113: Threat on the borders of the Roman Republic by attackers from the north: Cimbri, Teutons and Ambrones. They defeated Romans in Noreia.
-105: Cimbri and Teutons again faced the Roman army. The Romans lost the Battle of Arausio (Orange). It was claimed that only 10 men of the more than 100 000 survived the battle.
-102: Germanic attack at Aquae Sextiae (Aix-en-Provence) near the French Mediterranean.
-101: The Cimbri entered Italy, but this time they were butchered by the Roman army in the Battle of Vercellae. The surviving Teutons and Cimbri were captured as slaves.
-58: War in Gaul. Julius Caesar defeated the Germanic Ariovistus near the present Besançon. The Germans withdrew 'over the Rhenus'. The Belgae under the command of king Galba of the Suessiones, made an alliance against the Romans.
-57: Julius Caesar defeated the Belgae with his army.
-56: Julius Caesar defeated the Veneti in the Atlantic Ocean and subdued a number of tribes in Armorica. The Batavi separated themselves from the Chatti and settled in the Rhenus delta. The Romans invaded the Schelde area. Menapii and Morini lived hidden in the coastal marshes.
-55: Caesar defeated Germans on the Maas (Meuse). A Roman fleet of 80 ships landed at Deal on the English coast.
-54: Julius Caesar conquered Britannia from Portus Itius with a fleet of 800 ships. He landed on the Kent coast and moved on until the Stour. The army reached the Thames and conquered London. Eburones and Menapii made an alliance. Ambiorix of the Eburones revolted. Aduatici, Nervii and Menapii supported the uprising. A part of the Roman legions were destroyed by the Eburoni. Julius Caesar returned from Britain and defeated the Nervii, Trevi and Eburoni. Ambiorix fled over the Rhenus.
-53: Successful Roman attack against the Eburoni, the Menapii and the Morini. Ambiorix escaped again. Vercingetorix unleashed an uprising in Gaul.
-52: Vercingetorix was taken prisoner of war.
-51: Ambiorix came across the Rhenus with 25,000 Eburoi, but Caesar struck back. Ambiorix fled and disappeared without a trace, along with his tribe.
-50: End of the Gallic War, Julius Caesar subdued all tribes in Gaul. Caesar claimed that he had added about 200,000 square miles to the Roman Empire and that 1,192,000 people had been killed. He brought so much gold to Rome that the price decreased to a quarter. Western Europe must have been tired, poor and broken.327
-38: Octavian oppressed an uprising of the Aquitanians. The Germanic tribal chiefs had to deliver auxiliaries to the Roman army.
-30: The Batavi became mercenaries in the Roman army.
-13-12: Drusus in Western Europe. Roman fleet in the North Sea. Skirmishes with the Bructeri.
9: Revolt and great victory of Germans against Varus, the Roman governor of Germania.
23: Revolt of Nervii. One of the most difficult battles for Caesar, probably in the neighbourhood of Malbode.328
28: Revolt of Frisii against the Romans because of a drastic increase in taxes. The Romans of the castellum Flevum in the Baduhenna forest were taken by a Frisian army.
40: The Germanic tribe of the Quaden started with settlements in Eastern Europe.
41: Gabinius, governor of Gallia Belgica recorded a victory over the Chauci in their own region. As thanks he got the honorary title Chaucius.
43: Romans invaded Britain.
47: The Germanic Chauci (Chauken) attacked Belgica with light and very manoeuvrable vessels329 led by the Cananefate Gannascus. The Roman commander Corbulo subdued Frisians and Chauci and fortified the northern Rhenus strip. He concluded a truce with the Frisians. A generation later, barbaric Chauci who had joined the Roman fleet as rowers, revolted and stole 24 galleons with which they fled from the Rhenus to the North Sea.
54: Frisians were not allowed to settle over the Rhenus by the Romans (Nero).
69: Batavi revolted against the Roman occupier. They plundered forts on the Rhenus: Fectio, Laurium and Traiectum.
70: The Germanic Chatti and Usipeti threatened Mainz. The Romans defeated Batavi near Xanten. Conflicts with Frisians.
83: Usipetes were the first 'registered' tribe of the British islands.330
167: Germanic Vandals (Hasdingen and Lakringen) and Sarmatic Jazygen or Jazigers crossed the Danube and invaded Dacia (now Romania).
170: Germanic Marcomans, Quaden and Jazigers crossed the Danube in northern Italy. They had to withdraw again the next year.
172-174: Attacks of Chauci in Belgica.
200 Germanic Rhenus tribes united in a Frankish Alliance. (eg Chamavi and Chatti) Roman fort (as a response) in Maldegem. Germanic Chauci fought in the north of the Netherlands and plundered the current Flanders. Atrecht (Arras), Bavay, Terwaan and Tournai were largely destroyed. No Roman troops were stationed at that time in the region. They attacked the region via the channels and rivers that led to the North Sea. This resembled already the later wiking conflicts. The Romans responded with a punitive expedition against the Germans and perhaps builded forts along the Litus Saxonicum, the North Sea coast and the English Channel. The Quadi broke peace with the Romans.
180: Goths settled on the north side of the Black Sea and in Crimea.
Third-fourth century: Gradual start of the expulsion of the Rus by the Saxons.
220: Suspicion of naval operations: two altars from Vechten state military orders in the sea and on the Rhenus.
231: Indication of a victory over barbarians on a wy-inscription.
± 230: Roman border along the Rhine weakened considerably. Franks attacked Roman forts.
235: The Roman Empire was threatened by the Alemanni, Franks, Goths, Quadi and Sassanids.
Third century: Terp dwellers of the current Friesland and the sandy lowlands of North
Holland moved to drier areas. The region became almost uninhabited.
245: Germanic tribes, including Franks, invaded Gaul. The Franks plundered in Belgica.
Germans connected with each other.
253-270: Campaigns of the Romans against Franks. Germanic tribes won further territory.
Whoever participated with the Romans no longer felt safe and started to move away.
270: The Romans left Traiectum that was occupied by Germanic tribes.
275: Germans conquered Trier.
276: Xanten was destroyed.
278: Defeat of Franks.
280: Germans crossed the Rhenus and destroyed the Roman fleet.
284-285: Problems in Britannia, which the Romans probably surmounted for Emperor Carinus, and his brother Numerian got the title of Britannicus Maximus in 284.
284: Very first date where people talk about the Middle Ages. Split of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian in a Latin western and a Greek eastern part.
286: Fleet commander and Menapian Carausius proclaimed himself in Bonen (Boulogne) counter-emperor and ruled over Britannia and Gallia Belgica. Germans gained terrain along the Rhenus.
287: Franks became foederati in the Western Roman Empire.
290: Franks controlled the Schelde area. But to the west of the Schelde they had little too search and that area remained pagan: In the Frankish era only one proven domain occurred and no traces of a Roman villa were to be found. Carausius built reinforcements in coastal England.
293: Constantius Chlorus fought in the Schelde region and in Batavia against Franks and Frisians who cooperated with Carausius.
305: Constantius Chlorus crossed the Channel with his son Constantine I, to go to war against the Picts.
313: Campaign of Constantinus I against Franks in Batavia. Christianity became a permitted religion.
341-342: Constantinus' son Constans campaigned against Franks in Gaul. In 342 he had a victory and made a deal with the Franks.
342-343: Constans visited Britannia.
346: The crossing of The Channel was seen as a perilous undertaking by the Romans, due to the many barbarians. (The Errore Profanarum Religionum)
354: Germans conquered Cologne. Julian attempted to recapture lost areas to make his power clearer again.
356: Battle of Reims. Julian was defeated by Alemanni, but stroke back the following year at Strasbourg.
355-360: Kuedoi-Saxons built a number of boats and attacked Batavia. They expelled Salian Franks from Batavia which they used as a base. Julian and leader Charietto answered with a Germanic guerrilla war against the Kuedoi.
364: North Britannia: Attacks of Picts, Scots and Attacots against the Romans.
367: Saxons threatened the Romans in the Litus Saxonicum in East England. Ammianus spoke of a 'conspiratio barbarico': coastal leader Nectaridus was killed and leader Fullofaudes captured. Picts, Attacotts, and Scoti, caused great destructions. Claudius later wrote in a panegyric for Honorius that comes Theodosius brought the coasts of Britain to submission:...the Orkads full of dead Saxons, Thule infused with Pictish blood and Ireland weeping for the heaps of Scottish deaths... Conspiratio barbarico:...Franks and Saxons robbed, arsoned and murdered those who fell into their hands in the pagi of Gaul. Officer Theodosius fought the itinerant barbarians and lured them into ambushes...
370: Saxons were defeated at Diessen (Netherlands) by foederati.
± 380: Magnus Maximus suffered defeats against Franks and Saxons following Saxon coastal conflicts in Gaul. Stilicho, Vandal and prime minister of emperor Honorius overcame the Franks and brought peace to the Rhenus region.
388: Romans defeated rebellious Franks in the Coal Forest (Belgium).
± 400-450: The Battle of Finnsburg, a conflict between Frisians and Jutes against Danes. Hnaef died in the fight and Hengist became the new leader of the Danes. People made peace and Hingest was allowed to leave with the rest of the Danes. Did Hengist live in Danish Zeeland?
401-407: Angels, Juten and Saxons crossed the North Sea and settled in the south of England. In 407 the Romans left Britannia. Saxons took over power.
406: Visigoths entered Fiesole.
409: Armorica occupied by Saxons.
410: Visigoths plundered Rome.
413: End of the Western Roman Empire in Gallia Belgica.
426: Chlodio became king of the Salian Franks and ruled over Toxandria. In 428 he settled in Tournai and he extended his empire to the Somme.
429: British attacked Saxons and Picts. The Saxons continued to fight back.
434: The first spoils from Saxons of Ireland according to the book of Ulster.331
438: King Hermeric and his son Rechila ruled over the Suebi in Northern Spain. They defended themselves against the Visigoths.
441: Conflicts between (Anglo) Saxons in England. Britannia came partly under Saxon rule.
± 447: Vortigern, King of the British, gave the Anglo-Saxons the county of Kent.
± 450: Conflicts of Saxons on the Orkades. Comes Theodosius fought against the Saxons on the North Sea and in Saxoneia.
451: Attila threatened Western Europe.
455: Germanic Heruli attacked Hispania.
456: Saxons conquered Armorica. Saxons settled on islands in the Loire.
459: The Franks conquered Trier and their empire became a major military force.
463: Childerik on the Loire. Saxons conquered Angers.
469: Gallo-Romans defeated rebellious Loire-Saxons with the help of Franks.
471: Saxon's second loot from (or in) Ireland according to the Ulster book.332
473: Civil war in Burgundy. In 484 composition of the Lex Burgundionum.
476: End of the Western Roman Empire. Starting date of the Middle Ages for most historians. Germanic leaders, with Odoaker, conquered Rome.
486: Battle of Soissons: Franks, under the leadership of Hludwig (Clovis) defeated the Gallo-Roman army on the Aisne. Syagrius was beaten. From now on, Western Europe would have Germanic leaders.
491: Saxons attacked Nantes.
496: Battle of Tolbiac: King Hludwig defeated the Alemanni at Zülpich (Cologne).
± 499: Northmen settled on 'Danish' islands.
± 500: Florence was part of the Ostrogoths empire under Theoderic.
501: The Frisians lived from the Schelde region to the mouth of the Wisera. The Franks had, as the centre of power, the north of present-day France.
507: Lex Salica was introduced by Hludwig to maintain order. He overruled the Visigoths.
511: Frisians in Utrecht and Dorestad. Trade with Saxons and Franks.
± 525: Battle at the mouth of the Rhenus between Franks and Danes. A region where the two of them lived. Franks and Frisians defeated Danes, who were led by King Hygelac. Frisians (Frisian Danes) collaborated with the Franks. Gregorius of Tours told of the incident when he reported a sea battle on the Frankish coasts by the Danish Hygelac and his execution by Theudebert, grandson of Hludwig in the raven forest.
531: Franks and Saxons defeated Toringi.
532: Battle of Autun: Franks defeated Burgundians.
538: Franks defeated Goths and Byzantines in the Po-plain.
547: Ida Flamddwyn landed with 50 ships near Flaneburg (Flamborough) to conquer North Humberland (Northumbria).
± 556: Anglo-Saxons defeated Romano-Brittons in the southwest of England.
± 568: Saxons defeated Britons in Kent.
570: Longobards conquered Fiesole. It remained quiet for two centuries.
571-577: Battle of Bedcanford: (Anglo) Saxons gained an important victory over the British.
585: Visigoths conquered the land of the Suevi in northern Spain.
594: King Childebert II issued Frankish laws.
600: Dorestad flourished through the trade with Chamavi, Franks and Frisians.
Seventh-eighth century: Frisians gradually rediscovered the north of Europe. They fled for the Franks.
7th century: Numerous monastic foundations (320) in the Merovingian empire. One of the most important missionaries was Amandus, who was especially important in his efforts to convert the Schelde basin.
601: Northmen in Uppland.
605: A coalition of Saxons and Frisians defeated Franks.
630: Franks conquered land on the Frisians, south of the Rhenus area.
632: Franks conquered Aquitaine.
650: Northmen lived with the Gotland people in the entire Baltic region.
654: King Recceswinth issued the Lex Visigothorum in Toledo.
± 680: Frisians in the delta river area.
687: Conflicts between Merovingians and Carolingians. Pepijn (Pippin) of Herstal became leader de facto.
689: Franks defeated Frisians at Dorestad and recaptured the area south of the Old Rhenus.
692: First meeting between Pepijn (Pippin) of Herstal (Franks) and Redbad (Frisians). Redbad tried to negotiate for peace.
695: The Franks with mayor Pepijn (Pippin) of Herstal defeated king Redbad and his Frisians in Dorestad. Friesland lost many areas.
699: Willibrord went to the Danes to convert them.
700-750: In 2013, two ships with killed warriors were discovered on the Estonian island of Saaremaa as a kind of forerunners of the wiking era. It is estimated that the crew members lived between 700 and 750. The two boats contained the remains of dozens of men. In the smallest of the two boats seven bodies were lying and in the larger ship 33 people were buried, neatly arranged along with their weapons and animals. Everything looked like a hastily laid-up mass grave of a wandering group.
709-710-711-712: Revolts against the christianity of the Alemanni.
714: Pepijn (Pippin) II is murdered in Jupille in his homeland, probably by a Frisian.
715: Frankish civil war: succession struggle between Theudoald and Karel (Martel: a nickname that only occurred a century after his death).
716: Frankish civil war: Neustrians and Frisians against Austrasians. The cunning Redbad made grateful use of the follow-up dispute at the Frankish court and with the help of one party - that of Ragenfried and Chilperic - regained his lost Frisian areas. He crossed the Rhine to Cologne where court mayor Karel (Martel) stayed. Redbad won and returned victorious and with much spoils back to his Friesland. Immediately he chased Boniface and other christian preachers out of the country. Incidentally, Karel (Martel) in the same year would still beat Ragenfried and Chilperic at the Amel (Amblève) in the Ardennes. Whether Redbad was involved, rest unsure. Afterwards he was no longer mentioned in the historical sources. Later we find Boniface again in the Netherlands. In 743 he organised in his church, the second Germanic council in Estinnes (Liftinas/Leptinas) in Henegouwen (Hainaut). He directed the meeting together with Carloman I. A traveling pilgrim with Boniface was called Denewald and one of his couriers was called Denehard.333
717: Battle of Vincy near Kamerijk (Cambrai). Frankish civil war: succession struggle.
718: Battle of Soissons. Frankish civil war through the succession struggle between Karel (Martel) and Chilperic II. Karel became the actual ruler.
725: Norwegian finds in Denmark show that in Ribe, things were already going on in a peaceful way and there was trade between north and south. Ribe became a meeting place between northern and southern merchants, becoming an early establishment of a people who, later on, would be called wikings.
730: Karel (Martel) defeated the Alemanni and forbade the celebration of folk festivals and dancing around trees and in houses.
732: Battle of Poitiers. The Arab conquest of Europe fell silent.
734: The army of the Frisian king Poppo, the successor of Redbad, was beaten by the Frankish mayor Karel (Martel). The Frisian area largely lost its greatness and independence. With Redbad's death, the Carolingians now claimed Friesland as their country. Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) would annex the last piece in 772. The pagan religious images were destroyed by the Franks.
746: Karloman - son of Karel Martel - murdered at a meeting in Cannstatt (Stuttgart) almost all noblemen of Alemannia. From now on the area was controlled by Franks.
747: Karloman and brother Pepijn (Pippin) III the Short fought against Germanic tribes - including Saxons - because they did not want to pay the taxes.
± 750: Foundation of Birka (Sweden) and Staraja Ladoga or Aldeigjuborg (Russia).
753: Pepijn (Pippin) III in conflict with Saxons at Iburg. They feared for their holy places.
754: Pepijn (Pippin) III fought against the Longobards.
758: Conflict with Saxons. Pepijn (Pippin) III undertook campaigns in Aquitaine against Duke Waifar.
761: Pepijn (Pippin) III destroyed Clermont-Ferrand.
764: Waifar died and Pepijn (Pippin) III established his power over Aquitaine.
772: Saxons rebelled against the Franks after the destruction of their Irminsul. The fall of the Irminsul.
773: Widukind led a revolt against Karel de Grote (Charlemagne). Saxons destroyed Frankish settlements.
774: Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) annexed Florence who became member of the Frankish county of Tuscia (Tuscany).
775: Campaign of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) against the Saxons.
776: Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) returned from Italy to defeat Saxon insurgents. Widukind was married to the sister of King Ragnar and Siegfried. He fled to Dania because he did not want to swear allegiance to Karel de Grote (Charlemagne).
777: Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) allowed Christian Saxons of England to come over to the heathen Saxons to convert the mainland.
778: Karel de Grote or Charlemagne's army suffered a defeat at Roncevaux, known through the 'Roelandslied' (Roland song).
782: Saxons were divided. The nobility had joined the Carolingians. At Suntel Widukind destroyed a Frankish army. Hard repression of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) against the Saxons, known as the Verden bloodbath.
783: New battles between the Franks and the Saxons. Some Saxon women mixed in the fighting with bare breasts.
784: The Frisians joined the Saxons again.
785: Widukind surrendered, was baptised, and became loan man of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne).
789: The earliest wiking conflict happened at Dorset on the Isle of Portland peninsula in 789. The locals were probably used to the sailors and their trade, because the local Dorchester's reeve, Beaduheard, approached the three ships to welcome them. Something must have happened that shocked the sailors, because that reeve was murdered. Was it about the heathen-Christian opposition, where pagans were hindered in their trading? Perhaps the reeve had shown himself too much as a customs officer. O perhaps they were forbidden to come on land without paying tax. The location tells us that sailors like these eastmen also lived not so far. They could have come from Walcheren or the Schelde instead of northern Norway. They wanted to trade, but came out deceived, a trade expedition that ended badly.
792: Saxon uprisings. Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) deported Saxons and gave their land to Franks. King Offa of the Mierce rice (Mercia) wanted defensive strongholds on the east coast. Such a message proved that one expected conflicts.
793: This date would later be seen as the starting date for the wiking period. A Frankish chronicle pointed out two disasters: Saracens raid trips and Saxon revolts. (Saracens were traditional the descendants of Abraham's wife Sarah.) Sacking of the monastery of Lindisfarne by heathens. The christian world reacted terrified. In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles they wrote about 'þa Deniscan', the Danes.
795: The wikings were in Ireland as early as 795. In 795, 802 and 806 Iona was attacked and 68 monks died. The rest of the abbey population fled to the abbey of Kell (County Meath, Ireland). The wikings also attacked in the same year Rathlin Island on the Irish coast, Morganwg, South Wales and a few other places nearby. These events show that the wikings lived in the area. These may have been the first steps of the wikings on the Faroe Islands. It is not known whether the present Irish monks were chased away or not.334 The Hybrids could also have been an excellent basecamp. What is striking is that the wikings loved small places and islands. Attacking monasteries with (un)armed monks or churches did not really require much people.
799: Vikings reached the coast of Aquitaine. It costed them a few ships and 115 men perished at Noirmoutiers.
800: Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) became emperor. He immediately organised coastal defence works against the wikings.
802: Attempt to reconcile with the Saxons. The Lex Saxonicum had to create clarity. Abbey of Iona attacked by wikings.
804: Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) deported rebellious Saxons. Godfried met Karel de Grote (Charlemagne).
806: New conflict in Iona.
807: Invasion of Ireland. Conflict of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) with Godfried.
809: Siegfried tried to get peace with Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) with Frisian traders as middlemen.
810: A Danish fleet of 200 ships was in Friesland. Karel claimed that as his possession. The Scaldingi had enough courage to show their power. It became excitingly dangerous on the North Sea. Godfried wanted to go to Aachen, but was killed by his huskarls (houseguards). Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) defended himself by keeping boats ready in Bonen (Boulogne) and Gent. Hemming, cousin of the murdered Siegfried became king of the Danes.
811: Peace between Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) and Hemming, through the help of Harald Klak and Ragenfried, cousins of Hemming. Twelve noblemen of both parties came together and swore peaceful oaths.
812: Dane Hemming died. Harald and Ragenfried together became kings of the Danes.
813: The Danes got into a fight among themselves and Godfried's sons chased Harald Klak who fled to the Frankish court of Hludwig I (Louis the Pious). The former island of Bouin,336 now silted up to a village near the Loire was conquered. From Danish point of view one could speak of a colony.335
814: Death of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne). Successor Hludwig I (Lodewijk/Louis) the Pious. Harald and Ragenfried wanted the Dane-land back, which did not happen. Harald fled to Hludwig and became vassal. Ragenfried died in the conflict.
815: Hludwig I sought help from the Saxons and Abodrites to help Harald return to win his Dane-land.
819: Harald was in Dane-land again and reigned with Erik (Horik). Bishop Ebbo, from Germanic origin was sent to the Danes.
820: Thirteen ships occupied a part of Flanders. They had to give way and therefore explored the Seine.
822: Harald and Godfried's sons complained about each other on the court day in Frankfurt. Bishop Ebbo was commissioned from Rome to convert the Danes.
823: Harald Klak was expelled from Dania and asked for help from Hludwig I.
825: Iona attacked again. Prior Blathmac was killed.
826: Bishop Ebbo tried to make peace between Erik and his brothers and between Hludwig and Harald. Harald was baptised and became count of Rustringen and East Frisia. His son Godfried and cousin Harald the Younger stayed at the court of Hludwig. Ansgar accompanied (controlled) Harald. Harald built a church in Schleswig and a school in Hedeby. He thereby destroyed heathen altars.
827: Harald had to evade.
828: Harald invaded Jutland.
829: West-Saxon king Egbert, conquered Mierce rice (Mercia) and forced the inhabitants of North Humberland to surrender.
830: Lothar337 tried to take over from his father Hludwig, but failed. He worked together with the brothers Harald the Younger and Rorik. He promised them to regain dominion over the Schelde and Maas (Meuse) region.
831: Peace between Hludwig and the Danes.
832: Invasion of Ireland. Long ships plundered Armagh.
833: Wiking conflicts at Louth and Waterford in Ireland. Hludwig the Pious was pushed aside by his sons, but in 834 this was rectified again.
834: Wikings in County Wicklow in Ireland.
834-835: Danes caused riots for the first time in the important trading town of Dorestad. Franks were in conflicts. Quarrel about the imperial crown. In Brittany they were forging plans to drop Hludwig I and in Nantes and Angers they argued about the leadership of Rennes. Danes went 'north-way' to bury one of their leaders in Oseberghaugen in a longship (Oseberg ship). Some historians belief it is the tomb of Queen Alfhild, the first wife of king Godfried, son of Halfdeen. The ship was not a warship, but a pleasure craft for coastal fearing, because the large hull could not face the seas. Ragnar Lodbrok (wool pants), a jarl (eorl) from Danish kings338 came to power. Conflicts and campaigns against the Franks and departure to England.
835: In Wales, a large number of ships of the Danish fleet docked. A part of the
local population was in favour, another part was against those Danes. King Egbert of Wessex drew back through the 'force majeure' of 35 upcoming wiking ships. Wikings attacked Sheppey island in the Thames. The wikings caused disturbances in Antwerpen and Witla339
836: Dane Erik arrested some rebels (pirates) and handed them over to Hludwig.
Unrest in the Schelde area: Rorik fought at Antwerpen, Caloes, Deurne, Merksem, Ranst and Broechem. Unrest in Dorestad. Settlement in Antwerpen, where the contours of that location still can be seen in the current street plan. Antwerpen gradually became a trading city like Birka, Hedeby, Dorestad, York, Ipswich and others. The monks of Sint-Philibert (Noirmoutier) fled for the wikings.
837: Danes demanded their place in Walcheren and attacked the Frankish trading posts of the occupiers. In the conflict of 837 the Frankish converted Dane Hemming, son of Halfdeen, was killed. Danes seemed to fall apart in two camps,
Heathens who wanted to maintain their independence and christian converts who became Franks. Hence perhaps the struggles in the ringwalburg. Hludwig wanted to build a defence fleet against the Frisians. Gerulf van Kennemerland was arrested. Danes went back to their reasonably safe residence at Walcheren. Sixty wiking ships sailed on the Boyne and also sixty on the Liffey river (Ireland). They settled without resistance from the local population!
838: Rus representatives arrived in Western Europe. King Erik demanded to Hludwig power over Frisia and the North Alba region.
839: Unrest in Frisia. Danes fought among themselves. The Annales Bertiniani reported a major disaster on the coasts where almost the entire region of the Frisians disappeared under the water. The sand of the dunes had been washed away almost everywhere. Rus (Byzantine diplomats) visited the court of king Hludwig.
840: Lothar made peace with Hludwig and Hludwig with Erik. Together they came to an agreement to attack the pagan Frisians. In 840, Hludwig I (Louis the Pious) died, which led to a civil war. Danes/wikings saw an opportunity here to claim their rights. Hence the many raids after the death of the king. Danes, especially Rorik, tried to regain Flanders. They also wanted to own Antwerpen, Gent and Drongen, as well as control the Rupel and the Demer. They wanted to win Brabant as well. Wikings attacked Bordeaux. First arrival of wikings to Lough Neagh in Ireland.
841: The wikings occupied Rouen. Stellinga conflict: Power struggle among the Franks in which the Saxons chose for both sides: the farmers for Lothar and the nobility for Hludwig. Lothar searched allies in Walcheren-Frisia. He lent Walcheren to the wikings that lived there. The Annales Bertiniani mentioned that the Frankish king Lothar attempted to calm down the rebellious Saxons by proposing them a return to their own customary laws instead of the Frankish written laws that they should have accepted. Wikings settled in Longphort (Dublin).
843: Treaty of Verdun. The Carolingian empire was divided into three parts. Wikings used the island of Noirmoutier as their first settlement in the Frankish kingdom.
844: Rorik I and Harald III were killed at Walcheren. The wikings sailed on the Garonne to Toulouse. They were also noticed on the Spanish east coast to Gijon and La Coruna. Siege of Seville. In Lisbon they already had a branch, the later Saint George castle. They also sailed to Cadix and Sevilla and set up a camp. Cordoba and Firrich were looted. They continued to North Africa, to Arzilla, now Morocco. They were also seen again on the Gironde and the Garonne. Muslims called them madjous, al-Majus or al-Rus.
845: Unrest in Frisia. The wikings sailed on the Seine up to Paris. Karel the Bald paid 7000 pound of silver as a ransom. Saintes was visited by the wikings340 The wikings sailed on the Alba. Hamburg was attacked by Danes. Revolt of the pagans against a christian mission in Birka.
846: Unrest at Dorestad, Oostergo, Westergo and perhaps at Gent. Annales Bertiniani: The pirates of the Dani invaded Frisia again. I understand here that one wanted to stress that there were pagans again in Frisia. Haesten built a permanent establishment on the island of Noirmoutier (now in Bretagne).
847: Unrest at Dorestad and Meginhardeswich. Wikings penetrated Bretagne where king Nominoe was defeated. Commercial interests were clear, because managing the
strategic stops of the trade routes were necessary. Siege of Bordeaux by Aseger (god-spear, Asger, Ansgar, Asgeir) and intake in 848. The Annales Bertiniani accused jews of betrayal but there were also commercial interests Merchants and abbeys who gave danegeld were spared.
± 850: Harald Schoonhaar (Fairhair) sailed to Orkney for the first time. 140 ships with 'new' wikings landed in Ireland and submitted the wikings who lived already there in two groups, the Finngaill and the Dubgaill (light and dark strangers). It was the beginning of an important power struggle.
850: Rorik II and Godfried Haraldson caused disturbances in Dorestad and Utrecht. Rorik II ruled over Frisia. Ansgar built churches at Hedeby and Ribe.
851: Godfried showed his rights in Friesland and the Rhine Estuary. He also entered the Schelde and urged Gent. The abbey of Drongen was also mentioned. Conflicts between the Franks and the Bretons. Wikings on the island of Thanet in Essex. Athelstan (Gemstone), king's son of Edward the Elder of Wessex fought against wikings at Sandwich. That event is considered the oldest naval battle in England. Athelstan was able to conquer six ships. He closed a covenant at Tamworth (Tammuuorde or Tame-ford) by having his sister Edith married to the Danish King of York, Sitric (Sigeric). He died the following year and Athelstan took the opportunity to conquer North Humberland. Rorik was defeated by Aethelwulf (Edelwulf) from Wessex.
852: Godfried entered the Seine. They entrenched on the island of Les Andelys and defied the Frankish danger. They left again in the spring of 853. Conflicts in the Schelde area. Danish king Harald Klak died (was murdered?) in exile. Ansgar traveled to Birka again to boost the Christian mission.
853: Danish kingdom in Dublin.
854: Erik (Horik) the Younger succeeded his father Erik I as king of Dania after a bloody civil war. Taking of Luçon, probably due to a tribal fight for the leadership. Haesten was besieged by a Norman leader who was hired by the Count of Poitiers. He negotiated and could escape.
855: Godfried was with Rorik in Dorestad and they tried to conquer the power after Erik's death, who did not love the many troubles. Last mention of Godfried. Conquest of Bordeaux (Annales Bertiniani).
856: Rhodri of Wales achieved an important victory over a Danish wiking leader. Wales was spared from colonisation in the future, like in Ireland.
856-859: Haesten was looking for settlements in West Francia. With Bern Isernside (Björn Järnsida) he sailed up the Seine and they plundered the monasteries of Sint-Kwinten (Saint Quentin), Sint-Elooi (Arras), Sint-Denijs and Sinte-Genoveva (Paris). He also occupied the Channel Islands. 3,732 kg of silver was given as danegeld after the victory of wikings in Essex.
857: Destruction of Utrecht and plunder of Dorestad.
858: The wiking camp on the Seine island at Oscelle (Oissel near Rouen) was besieged by Karel the Bald.
859: Presence of wikings in Brabant. Wikings with Bern Isernside and Haesten sailed along the shores of the Mediterranean, from Spain to Byzantium. The Annales Bertiniani wrote that the Danes destroyed places on the Schelde. It is also possible that they just lived there or wanted to live there. Wikings attacked Narbonne. Victory over the wikings in Spain (battle of Albelda).
860: Wikings at the Ijzer mouth and at the Sint-Bertijn abbey of Sint-Omaars (Saint-Omer). The abbey of Saint-Denis received a 'portus' from Lothar II on the Schelde at Valenciennes. Siege of Pisa. Unsuccessful siege of Constantinople (Mikelgard) by Rus.
862: Baldwin I of Flanders threatened to join the Danes if he could not get an agreement with king Karel the Bald. The wikings wanted to go to Meaux but were pushed back. They left the Seine area. Their armies would split. A big part went to England. The Breton leader Salomon used wikings as mercenaries. Rorik got the chance to rule with his brothers over Proto Northwest Russia.
863: Last looting and mention of Dorestad. Death of Count Turpion and Màr the
wiking.341 Death of the count of Auvergne by the wikings at the gates of Clermont Ferrand.
863-864: The wikings resided between Saintes and Bordeaux. Count Arnold lost part of his army. (Historia Translat, Reliquiarum S Faustae) The wikings attacked Saintes, Angoulême, Périgueux and Limoges.342 With the support of Norman Danes, Pepijn (Pippin) II tried to regain his lost territory of Aquitaine. Pepijn (Pippin) entered the Garonne with them and besieged Toulouse. However, Toulouse was not pillaged because the Goth Humfroi (Huntfridus) ruled there. And he had probably chosen their side. The ships left again and Karel the Child, son of Karel the Bald kidnapped Pepijn (Pippin) away from the Norman troops. Because Humfroi was on the side of Pepijn (Pippin), he did not have to expect amnesty and he fled to Italy. Pepijn (Pippin) died in exile in Senlis. An episode that showed that the Normans already lived in Normandy and that there were also contacts with Carolingians. Siege of Rodez343 Battle of Connac (Albi) between the armies of Karel de Grote (Charlemagne) and the wikings.344 Baldwin I stopped northmen from invading Flanders.
865: The great army arrived in East Anglia in England. The first settlements followed.
866: Siege of Le Mans. Upon their return they were attacked by the Carolingians at Brissarthe. Karel the Bald paid ransom money for the safety of his empire. The Carolingians had to flee from Hasting wikings.
867: Wikings on the Humber attacked York with their great army of about 500 to a 1000 men. Everwic (York) became a wiking capital. Settlements in Snotingaham (Nottingham). Danes came to power in Deira, North Humberland and there were danegeld taxes. Yorkshire wikings were referred to as butsecarlas or buzecarlos in the domesday book. These buzekerels were boat people. A buce was a wide ship with two masts that served for the transport of heavy cargo.345 Rorik was expelled from Frisia.
869: Camp at Theodford (Thetford) led by Ingwar and Ubbe. King Edmund, half-brother of Athelstan was killed in a fight against the wikings.
869: Dane Godfried converted and married Gisela, daughter of King Lothar II.
870: Wikings, led by Ingwar Boneless and Olaf the White, destroyed the fort Dumbarton. With their loot they sailed to Dublin, their capital in Ireland. Settlements in Raedigam (Reading) with a shore and canal system that connected the two rivers, the Thames and the Kennet. That place clearly needed to be a permanent residence. Bagsecg and Halfdeen ruled here as kings.
870: Rorik lived in Frisia and was officially vassal of Karel the Bald. He was also baptised. After 873 Rorik is not mentioned anymore. One could possibly identify him with the rus wiking Rurik in Scandinavia.
871: The great army arrived in London, where they immediately set up two camps to settle themselves, one around Aldwyck and one at the place where the Tower now stands. Athelred and Alfred from Wessex had to resist the wikings several times. Athelred was killed in one of those conflicts. Settlement of the wikings at Torksey (Turcesige, Lindsey in North Humberland).
Alfred the Great (of Wessex) king of England. Death of Olaf the White from Dublin.
873: Death of King Ivar of Dublin. Camp in Hreopedune (Repton). Wikings split up in two groups. Rodulf lived in the region of Hludwig the German. The inhabitants of Oostergo refused to pay taxes and killed Rodulf and his men. At that time a converted Northman was their counsellor.
874: Wikings conquered Mierce rice (Mercia) starting from the Repton monastery. Danes destroyed a palace that was built by King Offa in the previous century. The great army split. One group of wikings, led by Halfdeen, settled on the banks of the Tyne in north Humberland. Another group with the ceorls or jarls Guthrum, Aseketel and Anvind went to the Grontabricc camp. The wikings changed the name from gronta to canta, which resulted in cam and Cambridge. They introduced the 'danelage'. Trade flourished and Cambridge expanded rapidly. Sigurd I king of Orkney. In Repton, archaeologists found a mass grave of 200 wikings/Danes who had not survived the harsh winter of 873-874. They probably came from current Flanders-Zeeland,346 and were hunted by the Franks.
875: Camp at Wareham, in southern England of two gathering groups from Cambridge and West England.
876: Leave of the great army to Exeter. A fleet was lost, due to a storm, 120 warships of the Swanwick area. Hence the smaller Exeter camp. Wikings took the power in York. Conflicts in Frisia. Karel the Bald wanted to come to a good agreement with the nortmanni.
877: King Rhodri of Wales was defeated by the wikings and he fled to Ireland. When he returned in 878, he was killed by Anglo-Saxons. New splitting of the great army. Camp at Chippenham. Death of Karel the Bald.
878: Wikings in Wales. Camp in Cirencester. Wessex was taken by the wikings. King Alfred sought protection in the abbey of Athelney in Somerset. He returned and defeated the wiking Guthrum. Guthrum was converted and was allowed to cooperate with the government of the region. Negotiating with each other seemed to be the best solution for both parties. Wiking colonies between the Saxons of the East Midlands, which became the five burgen region of Lincylene (from Lindon Colonia) Snotingaham, Stanford and Ledecestre (Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Stamford, Leicester).
879: Wikings in London, with a camp at Fulham. From then on, the great army would be more focused on the mainland. Settlements in the Schelde and Maas (Meuse) valleys were used as one base. Stay in Gent. Exploration of the Ijzer delta. In addition, the Frankish did not spare the settlements. Death of Rorik.
880: Settlement in Kortrijk. Conflicts in Nijmegen, Tournai, Atrecht, Thiméon in Henegouwen (Hainaut) and Gent.
881: Wikings entered the Rhine and attacked Nijmegen. Settlements at Ascloha. Raid upon Aachen. Wikings stayed in Gent and restored their ships. They also stayed in Kamerijk, Terwaan and Atrecht (Arras). Wiking camp at Asselt. They also stayed at Nijmegen, Liège, Maastricht, Tongeren, Malmedy and Stavelot. Hludwig III (Hluduig) defeated the wikings in Saucourt. The well-known 'Ludwig Song' is about that battle. That is why Wikings lost power in Flanders. After that, they were defeated at Kortrijk and Gent before they moved to the Maas (Meuse).
882: Wikings plundered Zutphen and Deventer. They stayed at Asselt, Atrecht and Kamerijk. Karel the Fat lent Frisia to the Danes. He negotiated with the wikings near Maastricht and gave 2800 silver pounds to the Danish leaders, Godfried, Sigfried and Worm, in order to leave.
883: Wikings settled in Amiens and Atrecht (Arras). Karel the Fat made a covenant with Godfried. End of the northman conflicts in the Schelde basin.
884: Wiking camp in Leuven and settlements in the neighbourhood.
885: Wikings in Leuven. Siege of Paris. One can read that the wikings were with 700 ships and 30,000 men. They wanted to go to Burgundy and dragged their boats upstream past the city. Yet Paris was plundered. Godfried was killed by Franks.
886: Herbert of Vermand land defeated the wikings in Paris and became count of Soissons. He defended the Seine and the Oise against the wikings. Alfred, king of Wessex, made a covenant with the wikings with the help of Guthrum. The west was for Alfred, the east between the rivers Thames and Tees became wiking area where the danelaw prevailed. The English and the Dane wikings were legally each other's equals.
887: Siegfried was killed in Frisia.
888: Arnulf of Carinthia defeated northmen near Leuven.
890: Baldwin II of Flanders expelled the northmen. Wikings at Atrecht (Arras).
891: Wikings returned to Leuven, but were attacked by king Arnulf of Eastern Franconia. Wikings in Flanders, Atrecht (Arras), the Dender, Liège and the Geul.
892: Wikings in Leuven. A famine caused them to leave the region. Northmen ships in Bonen (Boulogne). They sailed along the Flemish coasts. Landing at Appledore (England) and attempt to destabilise England.
± 892: Battle at Hafrsfjord (Hafursfirth). Harald became king of a united Norway.
896: Rollo built a camp at Choisy-au-Bac on the Aisne.
899: Alfred of Wessex died and his son Edward took over the crown. He started a new offensive against the wikings.
± 900: Tomb hill in Gokstad. A leader was buried in the ship where the mast had to serve as the ridge of the grave. He was buried with 12 horses, 6 dogs and a peacock together with other things, including three small boats, a tent, a sleigh and harness for horses. Gold and silver objects were probably looted in later times. The ship had 32 rowing places and there were 32 shields around the edge, possibly pointing to one warship. But the rowing pitches had no seats! A ceremony ship? The wood of the ship dated from 890 and thus descended from the period of Harald Schoonhaar (Fairhair). The French Wikipedia believes that the dead man Olaf is Geirstad-Alf, a king of Vestfold from the house of the Inglinge.
902: Irish expelled wikings from Dublin. Seven hundred Rus tried to take Crete again from the Arabs.
911: Rollo was defeated at Chartres, but king Karel the Simple nevertheless concluded a treaty with him at Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. He lent Rollo the area around the Seine mouth. Rouen became the capital. Birth of Normandy.
917: Wikings restored their authority in Dublin.
918: Athelflæd, the widow of Athelred and daughter of Alfred, built forts and conquered land on the Dani wikings. She died in 918.
919: Riot in Ireland against the wikings by, among others, the Irish king Niall Glundubh. At Dublin he was defeated and killed, along with 12 other rebellious kings.
920: The Roman church returned to Utrecht.
923: Rollo expanded his Norman area with Bayeux and Caen.
924: Edward died and Athelstan (Gemstone) succeeded him.
925: Rollo wanted to conquer Flanders, Amiens and Noyon. After negotiation, peace was closed with Rollo who stopped his desire to conquer Flanders.
927: Athelstan conquered York.
± 930: Destruction of the camp in Péran (Brittany) where wikings resided.
930: Creation of the alding at Thingvellir on Iceland.
937: Athelstan of Wessex destroyed at Brunanburh the Dublin wikings and their supporters from Scotland.
939: Death of Athelstan, the first king of England.
949: Six hundred twenty-nine Rus tried again to recapture Crete from the Arabs.
± 950: Emperor Otto I the Great had a toll on the Schelde around 950. He signed a treaty with the people who lived there. Does the Brabo story originate here? Then there was no 'giant' Antigoon, but a 'Rus' Antigoon.
954: Erik Haraldsson Bloodaxe, son of Harald Fairhair (son of Halfdeen from the sib of the Inglingen) He was the last wiking king in England and was obliged to leave York where he had reigned from 949 onwards. He was known as a brute who regularly came into conflict with others wikings. He fled to the north. End of the wiking kingdom of York (876-954).
958-959: Death of Worm the Elder, followed up by his son Harald Bluetooth.
959-975: Peaceful time in Mierce Rice and North Humberland under the diplomatic king Edgar.
961: Sea battle at Fitjar, south of the Norwegian Bergen between the cousins Hakon the Good Ingling and Harald Grauwvel (Greyskin) son of Erik Bloodaxe. Hakon was killed.
964: Rus were sent to fight In Sicily.
965: Harald was baptised.
974: Otto II of Germany occupied Denmark.
980: Dublin's wikings lost the battle at Tara in Ireland.
980-985: Joms wikings defeated at Alesund (Hjörungavágr)
985-986: Erik the Red in Greenland.
988: Vladimir of Kiev-Russia converted to Christianity. He sent 6,000 Rus to the Byzantine emperor.
991: Byrhtnoth, chief magistrate of Essex, died in Maldon during a fight against Dani-Wikings who wanted to enter Essex. Before that Battle of Maldon a wiking shouted at the Saxons – they spoke the same language - that it would be better to just pay, because there was no reason for killing each other. Wikings at Staveren.
994: Wikings in East Frisia on the Elbe and the Wezer mouth. Wikingraids in England with 94 ships. In the same period, Saxons attacked Denmark.
1000: Iceland accepted the Christian religion as an official religion. Wikings on Vinland.
1002: King Edelred of England wanted to kill all the Danes of England on Saint Brice's day.
1003: Swein Vorkbaard (Forkbeard) had a base on the Isle of Wight.
1006: Unrest with Normans in Tiel.
1007: Unrest with wikings in Utrecht.
1009: Wikings stayed in the river areas. Utrecht was spared. England prepared its fleet, but there was disagreement about the leadership. This led to a split under two leaders. Even before wikings could be attacked, a third of the fleet was already destroyed through this conflict. And on August 1, wikings landed in Kent. The Kentish people payed 3000 pounds to be free.
1013: Swein or Sven Vorkbaard (Forkbeard) drove Edelred II and named himself by his victory 'King of England'. He was a son of the Danish king Harold Bluetooth and had already organised 20 years of raids in England. After a large-scale invasion, he subjected the people of the Danelage. London also surrendered to Sven causing Edelred to flee to Normandy and the entire country came under Danish control. But five weeks after the battle, Swein passed away.
1014: Brian Bóru was killed in Clontarf near Dublin. The political power of the wikings in Ireland began to crumble.
1016: Death of Edelred. Knut the Great, son of Swein, defeated Edmund Isernside with 160 ships. He became king of England. He later became king of Denmark.
1026: Battle at Holy River.
1030: Battle of Stiklestad (Norway) between Olaf and Knoet the Great. Knoet won.
1038: Harald Hardrade sailed to Sicily with 500 Warings.
1041: Last wiking attack with great losses of the Rus in the battle of Montemaggiore (Sicily).
1042: Edward the Confessor became king of England. During his government, contacts with Normandy became more important.
1062: Battle of Niså (Denmark) between Harald Hardrada and Sweyn Astridsson (Estrythson) of Denmark.
1066: Date that most scholars indicate as the end of the wiking age. Edward the Confessor died and was succeeded by Harald Godwinson, count of Wessex. He got immediate threats from William, Duke of Normandy and Harald Hardrada, king of Norway, who both claimed the English throne. Harald was still in York on the 24th of September. The conflict between Harald and Willem that ended at Fulford and Stamford Bridge on 25 September 1066, was the conclusion of the wiking era. Harald died in the fight. 19 days later, October 14, the famous battle at Hastings took place, of which the Bayeux carpet give us one fascinating description. Willem and Eduard are depicted on the carpet. On Christmas Day, Willem demanded the English throne. From then on, England would become culturally frenchified.
1070: The Danish king Sven Estridsson came to England and demanded the throne, but was chased by Willem.
1075: Knoet, son of Sven, came to England with a Danish fleet.
1098: Magnus Berrevoet (Flemish Barrevoet, Berrføtt: Barefoot) from the house of the Inglinge, wanted a Norwegian empire around the Irish Sea. He conquered the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides and the Isle of Man with the help of his sword bonebiter (Western Flemish bjinbitr).
1103: Death of Magnus Berrevoet in Ireland. Several offspring of Magnus fought for the throne. A long period of civil war began in Norway. It would last until 1240.
1151 to 1153: Sacking of the east coast of Scotland and England by the king of Norway Eystein II Haraldsson. He attacked Aberdeen, Hartlepool and Whitby in a way that is reminiscent of the earlier wiking raids.
1171: The death of the last Scandinavian king of Dublin, Askulf Mac Torkil while he tried to recapture his kingdom. Askulf tried to get his property back from the English. His invasion of Dublin failed and he was executed by the English governor of the city.
1185: The Normans (northmen) led by Willem II of Sicily organised an expedition from the island to the Balkans. They plundered Thessaloniki.
1263: Battle of Largs: An undecided battle in the Scottish-Norwegian War. Haakon IV landed on the coast of Scotland, but after a battle with the Scots, both parties drew back. On 15 December 1263 King Haakon IV Haakonsson the Old of Norway died on the Orkney Islands. During his stay with the bishop in Kirkwall, he became ill and died. He was recognised as one of the great kings of Norway.
Sources (I follow the numbers of my Dutch book)
326. General sources
-BBC history, January 2016, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/timeline/vikinganglosaxons_timeline_noflash.shtml
-Calmette Joseph, Le siège de Toulouse par les Normands en 864 et les circonstances qui s'y rattachent, in Annales du Midi: revue archéologique, historique et philologique de la France méridionale 1917 Volume 29 Numéro 115 pp. 153-174
-Declercq Georges, Ganda & Blandinium, Publisher Snoeck-Ducaju &Zoon Gent 1997
-Dhaeze Wouter, De Romeinse kustverdediging langs de Noordzee en Het Kanaal van 120 tot 410 na Chr. Dissertation Leuven 2011
-Gjallar, on http://www.gjallar.nl/index.html January 2016
-Holman Katherine, Historical Dictionary of the Vikings. In: Historical Dictionaries of Ancient Civilizations and Historical Eras, No. 11. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham, Maryland, and Oxford 2003
-Mestdagh M, De vikingen bij ons, Stichting Mens en Kultuur, Gent 1989
-Nifterlaca on http://www.nifterlaca.nl/read.php?3,13681,13681#msg-13681 February 2016
-Partington S. W, The Danes in Lancashire and Yorkshire, London 1909, p. 3 and 89
-van Bodegom S, De Lage Landen in de Vikingtijd, 2005 op http://www.tjurslakter.nl/geschiedenis.pdf February 2017
-Wikipedia at viking, Viking leaders and dates on different pages and in different languages.
-Zosimos, Historia nova I. 30. and Eutropius, Breviarium IX. 8.
327. Lelis, p. 154
328. Malbode: low grounds or soil where they spoke justice, now called Maubeuge.
329. ...levibus navigiis praedabundus Gallorum maxime oram vastabat...
330. Clements, p. 3
331. Book of Ulster, U 434.1
332. Book of Ulster, U 471.1
333. Riché A, Histoire de l'église depuis les origines jusqu'à nos jours, Paris 1935
Trouillez Pierre, De Franken en het christendom (550-850) Een rechte lijn. Davidsfonds Leuven 2016 Denewald, Denehard p. 53
334. Færeyjar: Conventional 'ono' for sheep islands. Or could it be Saxon? See at Faroe Islands.
335. The weapon of Bouin shows a (wiking) ship. Could the population consist of descendants of settled Danes? The village or island was located near the area where the Veneti traded. Could Bouin be a Germanic word that meant almost the same as Bonen (Boulogne), like a grain (bonen) trade by ship? The pronunciation of Bouin is the same as the Western Flemish pronunciation for the word (bwon'). Now one keeps it on the Germanic word 'bode' (messenger).
336. Wikipedia at Bouin, author Jimmy44 (Creative Commons)
337. From Hludhar: loud (Hlud) or powerful army(leader), Lotharius in Latin.
338. Nordisk familjebok konversationslexikon och realencyklopedi, Digital faksimilutgåva av första och andra utgåvan, 1876-1926 p. 910 on http://runeberg.org/nf/
339. Annales Fuldenses
340. Annales Engolismenses & Chronicon Aquitanicum
341. Annales Engolismenses & Chronicon Aquitanicum
342. Adrevald, Miraculis Sancti Benedicti
343. Mon. Germ., Auctores antiquissim & vie de Saint Amand
344. Charte de donation de l’église de Connac
345. In Western Flemish, buze (buce, buse buyse) means tube, which can also be a name for a wide tubular ship. The word may therefore not be Old French, but Germanic. The family names Buisman Boesmans or Bueseman mean shipman. The name shows that they could also be labeled as traders. The professional name for skipper may still exist in old Flemish family names such as 'hannins bucen lant' and 'Jan buce'.
346. Denmark en Northern France according to Clements on p. 76
2. Scaldingi book: photos and further explanation
p. 19 Frisia-Flanders
The twelfth century Pesane map still shows us Flanders and Frisia (even with some inaccurate placing of towns) as one region between Allemania and Normandy.(Public Domain Wikipedia)
View of the Channel from Kent to Flanders (present-day France).
Conventional Frisian borders on a map from 1700 (Public Domain).
Pictures of four figureheads (Schelde finds from 5th-9th century)
p. 47 Gokstad ship (photo excavation 1880)
The old West Flemish coat of arms on a building in Brugge.
p. 56 Germany. A mosaic has been found in northern Germany that could well be the oldest depiction of the coat of arms of Flanders and Liederik. (From: Die Schwedenschanze, eine archäologische Kostbarkeit des frühen Mittelalters, On: http://www.stadt-stade.info/politik_und_stadt_Schwedenschanze ) Article in Dutch on https://laaglandsinfo.jouwweb.be/gevarieeerde-verhalen/een-mozaieekje-in-duitsland .
p. 88 Domburg ring
p. 91 Diksmuide with a (still partially visible) circular structure.
The question is whether the 'castle' was built on new grounds or upon old ring forts of the conquered enemies like pagans or wikings.
p. 99 Roeselare
The small ringwalburg can still be seen on a map from the seventeenth century by Sanderus. It was built in a place were the river became navigable. Probably that burg was only important as a residence for the sovereign of the region.
p. 99 Izegem (Flandria Illustrata 17th century)
The Walburg here is referred to as the Old Castle or the Wall, the place where once the lord of Izegem stayed. Nearby was an island from which the Mandel could be guarded.
p. 99 Ingelmunster (Flandria Illustrata 17th century)
Here, a ring has not been identified, but there was certainly a walburg or moated castle on the Mandel. Because of its historical value until well into the Middle Ages, this must have been an important fortress along the Mandel.
The Danevirke are massive earthen ramparts in Schleswig, east-west from Haithabu-Hedeby to the marshes near Hollingstedt. They are together up to 35 km long and in some places up to six metres high.
Harcourt and Herzele.
p. 187, Staden
p. 188, Dampierre
p. 191 Deventer map: Sint-Winoksbergen (Bergues) French Flanders
Flanders in the first millennium on a map of Malbrancq (De Morinis 1639).
Dragon on a shield of a Waring and on the carpet of Bayeux.
Then a dragon on the shield of Baldwin I of Flanders. On the right the lions of Godfried of Anjou and of his nephew Philip of Alsace count of Flanders.
Page 209 note 633
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Here is another link. Do not forget that this information is very interesting but should be treated with some caution.
12th century icon (Byzantium) with warings as soldiers.
Nordic shields (Van der Laars, Wapens, vlaggen en zegels van Nederland Amsterdam 1913, p. 17)
Ireland map of Wenceslas Hollar (17th century, Public Domain).
p. 240 Saint- Suliac
Dol also had conflicts with wikings in the ninth century. Haesten took over Dol in 878. In Saint- Suliac, according to the majority of historians, one can still admire port remains of wikings from the early tenth century.